Modi’s farm reform reversal to discourage funding in India’s agriculture


India’s repeal of agriculture legal guidelines geared toward deregulating produce markets will starve its huge farm sector of much-needed personal funding and saddle the federal government with budget-sapping subsidies for years, economists mentioned.

Late final 12 months, Prime Minister Narendra Modi‘s authorities launched three legal guidelines meant to open up agriculture markets to corporations and appeal to personal funding, triggering India’s longest-running protest by farmers who mentioned the reforms would enable companies to use them.

With a watch on a important election in populous Uttar Pradesh state early subsequent 12 months, Modi agreed to rescind the legal guidelines in November, hoping to clean relations with the highly effective farm foyer which sustains practically half the nation’s 1.Three billion folks and accounts for about 15% of the $2.7 trillion economic system.

However by shelving probably the most formidable overhaul in a long time, Modi’s backtracking now seemingly guidelines out much-needed upgrades of the creaky post-harvest provide chain to chop wastage, spur crop diversification, and increase farmers’ incomes, economists mentioned.

“This isn’t good for agriculture, this isn’t good for India,” mentioned Gautam Chikermane, a senior economist and vice chairman at New Delhi-based Observer Analysis Basis.

“All incentives to shift in the direction of a extra environment friendly, market-linked system (in agriculture) have been smothered.”

The u-turn does allay farmers’ fears of dropping the minimal value system for fundamental crops, which growers say ensures India’s grain self-sufficiency.

“It seems the federal government realised that there is benefit within the farmers’ argument that opening up the sector would make them susceptible to giant corporations, hammer commodities costs and hit farmers’ earnings,” mentioned Devinder Sharma, a farm coverage skilled who has supported the growers’ motion.

However the gruelling year-long standoff additionally means no political social gathering will try any comparable reforms for at the very least a quarter-century, Chikermane mentioned.

And, within the absence of personal funding, “inefficiencies within the system will proceed to ship wastage and meals will proceed to rot,” he warned.


India ranks 101 out of 116 international locations on the International Starvation Index, with malnutrition accounting for 68% of kid deaths.

But it wastes round 67 million tonnes of meals yearly, value about $12.25 billion – practically 5 occasions that of most giant economies – in keeping with numerous research.

Insufficient cold-chain storage, shortages of refrigerated vehicles and inadequate meals processing amenities are the principle causes of waste.

The farm laws promised to permit personal merchants, retailers and meals processors to purchase instantly from farmers, bypassing greater than 7,000 government-regulated wholesale markets the place middlemen’s commissions and market charges add to client prices.

Ending the rule that meals should move via the permitted markets would have inspired personal participation within the provide chain, giving each Indian and international corporations incentives to spend money on the sector, merchants and economists mentioned.

“The agriculture legal guidelines would have eliminated the most important obstacle to large-scale purchases of farm items by massive companies,” mentioned Harish Galipelli, director at ILA Commodities India Pvt Ltd, which trades farm items. “And that may have inspired companies to convey funding to revamp and modernise the entire meals provide chain.”

Galipelli’s agency will now must re-evaluate its plans.

“We’ve got had plans to scale up our enterprise,” mentioned Galipelli. “We’d have expanded had the legal guidelines stayed.”

Different corporations specialising in warehousing, meals processing and buying and selling are additionally anticipated to evaluate their enlargement methods, he mentioned.


Poor post-harvest dealing with of produce additionally causes costs of perishables to yo-yo in India. Solely three months in the past, farmers dumped tomatoes on the street as costs crashed, however now shoppers are paying a steep Rs 100 ($1.34) a kg.

The legal guidelines would have helped the $34 billion meals processing sector develop exponentially, in keeping with the Confederation of Indian Business (CII), an business group.

Demand for vegetables and fruit would have gone up. And that may have reduce surplus rice and wheat output, slicing bulging shares of the staples value billions of {dollars} in state warehouses, economists mentioned.

“Crop diversification would even have helped rein in subsidy spending and slim the fiscal deficit,” mentioned Sandip Das, a New Delhi-based researcher and farm coverage analyst.

Meals Company of India (FCI), the state crop procurement company, racked up a report Rs 3.81 lakh crore ($51.83 billion) in debt by final fiscal 12 months, alarming policymakers and inflating the nation’s meals subsidy invoice to a report Rs 5.25 lakh crore ($70.16 billion) within the 12 months to March 2021.

Nevertheless, whereas the federal authorities now has restricted scope for change, native authorities “can go for reforms supplied they’ve the political will to take action,” mentioned Bidisha Ganguly, an economist at CII.

Equally, enterprise capital-funded startups have additionally expressed curiosity in India’s agriculture sector.

“Agritech, whether it is allowed to take root, has the potential to allow a greater handshake of farmers and shoppers via their technological platforms,” Chikermane mentioned.

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